Authors: Manita Raut and Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt, ANU
The tagline, “Water is Life,” predicts that by 2022, two-thirds of Pakistan will be submerged in floods, affecting more than 33 million people, displacing tens of millions of people, kill 1400 people.
The Indus River has underpinned Pakistan’s rural prosperity for generations, but the frequency and intensity of flooding has steadily increased in recent decades.is more than 13 Flood Pakistan has been experiencing floods since 1992, killing and displacing hundreds of thousands of people each time. The wrath of climate change, a history of poor water resource planning, and indiscriminate infrastructure development have made the Indus a symbol of danger.
As of September 2022, flooding has killed 8 million animals and destroyed nearly 2 million acres of crops. His 90% of this country’s crops and his 8 million animals have died. These numbers are expected to skyrocket. Crops and livestock constitute an integral part of Pakistan’s rural economy and livelihoods, so recovery from the catastrophe will be difficult.
Given that around 40% of Pakistan’s labor force is engaged in agriculture, this could exacerbate inflation and increase underemployment. Pakistan’s transport, health and education sectors will suffer in the long run. World Health Organization (WHO) Estimate About 5,000 km of roads and railways have been severely damaged. In the near future, lack of mobility will make it difficult to deliver aid and medical supplies to village households.
Both human and climate-related factors contribute to flood damage. However, there is no denying that the 2022 floods were related to climate change.Pakistan is experiencing extreme heat, with temperatures far above 45 degrees Celsius long hours during the summer. The temperature of Jacobabad, where he is one of the hottest places in the world rose to A staggering 51 degrees Celsius. Melting glaciers high in the Himalayas have brought excess meltwater into Pakistan’s river systems.
When the monsoon season arrived, the already swollen rivers were unable to drain water quickly enough into the Arabian Sea.according to third pole article, the 2022 monsoon has deviated from its normal course, and this change could have severe implications for Pakistan. Pakistan received twice her average annual rainfall in some provinces such as Sindh and Baluchistan. seven to eight times average.
other ‘artificialA factor has been rampant and pervasive infrastructure development. Infrastructure built along and around the river increased human losses. By ignoring the land’s natural slope, the infrastructure prevented excess water from flowing smoothly into the ocean. It also instilled a false sense of security in those occupying land formerly occupied by the river whenever the river spilled over its banks to deal with excess water.
Two views have emerged as to whether the construction of the infrastructure caused the anomalous behavior of the Indus. 1 group Criticize Large-scale infrastructure development such as embankments and roads without considering natural drainage and land slopes. Another argues that the poor do not always have a choice but to live in vulnerable areas.
In Pakistan, nearby farms have long been fed water from the Indus River to expand irrigation systems and support agricultural growth. Over the years, river banks have been built with government assistance to protect farmland from sporadic floods. Settlements built along riverbanks and in flood-prone areas contributed by clogging natural drainage where excess water moved toward the sea.
Most of the farms that receive their irrigation water from the Indus are owned by wealthy farmers. Wealthy farmers have prospered from this irrigation infrastructure, while the poor have had to bear the burden of flooding and devastation. This raised questions about fairness and justice in Pakistan.
Floods have also drawn attention to global climate inequalities.Even though it’s Pakistan To contribute With less than 1% of global greenhouse gas and carbon emissions, it was ranked among the top 10 most vulnerable countries to the impacts of climate change. Global Climate Risk Index.
To address these multifaceted challenges and combat the climate crisis, Pakistan needs to implement diverse short- and long-term strategies that are carefully designed, debated and comprehensively implemented. Science and policy must link climate change risks and mitigation in a workable way.
Better climate preparedness is needed not only in Pakistan, but across South Asia.whole region experienced extreme weatherfloods, droughts, etc. heat waveThe tragedy in Pakistan is a wake-up call for the world’s most densely populated region. Without prompt action to improve preparedness, mitigation and adaptation to the climate crisis, disasters will worsen. As United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres urges, “Today is Pakistan. Tomorrow it may be your country.
Manita Raut is a PhD student and John Allwright Fellow at ANU’s Crawford School of Public Policy.
Kuntala Lahiri–Dutt is Professor of the Resources, Environment and Development Program at the Crawford School of Public Policy. ANU.